In the Medieval world, space and time were just “there”, an unchanging backdrop to nature. Earth was the center of the universe.
Copernicus, in the 16th century, learned that the earth and planets revolve around the sun.
In the Renaissance, Galileo studied the phases of the moon, and developed the pendulum clock.
In the 1700s, Newton’s mathematics pointed to a mechanistic, clockwork universe, with a Big Watchmaker, God.
We learned that the sun is part of a galaxy, among billions in the universe.
The second law of thermodynamics gave us the concepts of entropy, an arrow of time leading to our universe’s eventual cosmic heat death, and an end to time.